More than 9.6 million people have relocated for poverty alleviation, with more than 73% of the relocated population in the western region. How to achieve sustainable development of the relocated population is the key to follow-up support for relocation for poverty alleviation. Based on the survey data of 515 minority households in Nujiang Prefecture in three districts and three prefectures, a coupling coordination degree model and Logistic regression model of livelihood capital and livelihood stability were established to analyze the influencing factors of livelihood coupling coordination type, livelihood strategy selection and transformation. The research found that the living capital level of relocated immigrants is low at this stage, and the coupling and coordination relationship between living capital and livelihood stability is in a stable recovery period. The coupling and coordination degree of livelihood capital and livelihood stability of immigrant families in the type of labor-based agriculture supplemented and diversified livelihood is better than that of agriculture-based labor supplemented. Among the influencing factors of the choice of livelihood strategies, physical capital, financial capital and human capital have negative effects on immigrant families with agriculture as the main activity and labor as the auxiliary type, while human capital and social capital have positive effects on the immigrant families with the employment as the mainstay and agriculture as the auxiliary type, and physical capital, financial capital, and social capital have significant impacts on immigrant families with diverse livelihoods. The key factors for the transformation of immigrants from agriculture-based and labor-assisted types to labor-based and agricultural-assisted ones are physical capital and human capital, in which the amount of household assets, income, employment skills training, and the number of non-agricultural employment promote the transformation. The key factors for the transformation of immigrants from agriculture-based labor-related types to livelihood-diversified ones are physical capital, financial capital, and human capital, in which the ecological environment of the place of residence, housing area, amount of household assets, income, bank loans, employment skills training, and the number of non-agricultural employment promote the transformation. Based on these findings, it is proposed that in the post-relief period for ethnic minority immigrants out of poverty, it is necessary to strengthen employment skills training, increase credit, increase income from land resources, deepen cooperation between the east and west, and focus on county-level industry cultivation.