In order to comprehensively understand the current status of global hydropower development, to analyze the development potential of hydropower markets in various countries, and to guide hydropower enterprises to explore the international market, the world is divided into six regions, including North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Central and South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The current status of hydropower development in various regions of the world, as well as the corresponding status and development goals in key countries are elaborated. Based on the water resources and the development situation, the exploring potential of the global hydropower market is analyzed. The results show that the total installed capacity of hydropower in the world continues to increase but the annual increment shows a downward trend. The hydropower development potential in Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia is relatively large. In terms of technology development, the countries such as Indonesia, Peru, DR Congo, Tajikistan, Nepal, Angola, Myanmar and Bolivia, etc. , have broad prospects for future hydropower markets.