以保障黄河河口区三角洲湿地生态需水、河口及近海鱼类需水及河道泥沙输送为目标，针对不同需水目标的特点，基于生境模拟模型、函数型线性回归模型等方法，分别计算入海径流过程对三角洲湿地及河口区生物群落生境及生物量的影响，以及来沙系数对河道输沙的影响，遵循消耗性需水的加和性原则与非消耗性需水的最大性原则，提出满足三角洲湿地生态需水、河口及近海鱼类需水、泥沙输送等多目标的需水量及流量过程。结果表明，依时段对流量过程进行调控可更好地满足不同保障目标的需水需求，可在3月达到一定的流量过程，在4—5月的最小、适宜、最大流量分别为 456.91 m3/s、634.04 m3/s和1 107.38 m3/s，其余月份的最小、适宜、最大流量分别为146.91 m3/s、559.79 m3/s和1 107.38 m3/s，得到黄河口最小、适宜、最大需水量分别为71.05亿m3、181.51亿m3和349.85亿m3。通过在年内保障生态需水总量，同时在特定生物的关键生长时期维持特定流量脉冲，可有效改善黄河三角洲湿地、河口及近海区域生境质量，为黄河口的生态保护和修复提供理论支持。
Aiming at the ecological water demand of delta wetland, the water demand of estuarine and offshore fish, and sediment transport, according to the characteristics of different water demand targets, based on the habitat simulation model and functional linear regression model, the effects of runoff process on the habitat and biomass of biological community in delta wetland and estuary area, and the effects of incoming sediment coefficient on the sediment transport were calculated respectively. The calculation of consumptive water demand was followed the additive principle and non-consumptive water demand was followed the maximum principle, the water demand and discharge process that meet the multi-objective of delta wetland ecological water demand, estuarine and offshore fish water demand, and sediment transport were put forward. The results show that regulation of the discharge process according to time period can better meet the demand of different guarantee objectives. Certain discharge can be provided in March, and the minimum, suitable and maximum discharge from April to May are 456. 91 m3/s, 634. 04 m3/s, 1 107. 38 m3/s, respectively, while in other months are 146. 91 m3/s, 559. 79 m3/s and 1 107. 38 m3/s, respectively. The minimum, suitable and maximum water demand in the Yellow River Estuary are 71. 05 billion m3, 181. 51 billion m3 and 349. 85 billion m3, respectively. By ensuring the total ecological water demand in the year and maintaining the specific discharge during the critical growth period of specific organism, the habitat quality of delta wetland, estuarine and offshore areas can be effectively improved, so as to provide theoretical support for the ecological protection and restoration of the Yellow River Estuary.
易雨君,徐嘉欣,宋劼,等.黄河河口区生态需水量及流量过程核算[J].水资源保护,2022,38(1):133-140.(YI Yujun, XU Jiaxin, SONG Jie, et al. Ecological water demand and discharge process calculation in the Yellow River Estuary[J]. Water Resources Protection,2022,38(1):133-140.(in Chinese))复制