为了准确量化小浪底水利枢纽对径流状态的影响，提出了水库生态影响与贡献率定量分析方法，对比分析了不同时段有无水库两种情景下的径流状态，揭示了水库对径流状态的影响，并通过与实测径流状态变化对比来量化水库的贡献率。结果显示:2000—2019年，小浪底水利枢纽年均减少下游利津断面断流81.15 d，减少生态基流、关键期最小生态流量和关键期适宜生态流量的不达标天数75.25 d、31.35 d和27.10 d，增加关键期入海水量23.71亿m3；与1980—1999年相比，2000—2019年黄河天然径流量减少10.59%，三门峡断面实测来水量减少22.15%，同时下游用水量增加，不利于河流生态流量保障；小浪底水利枢纽扭转了来水和取水的不利影响，保障了黄河下游径流和生态状态持续好转，对利津断面防断流、生态基流保障和关键期入海水量增加的贡献率分别为187.85%、137.32%和125.83%。
This paper proposes a method to quantify the influence and contribution rate of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir on runoff accurately. The influence of the reservoir on runoff can be quantified by comparing the runoff under the scenarios with and without the reservoir. By comparing the runoff influenced by the reservoir and the measured runoff, the contribution rate of the reservoir can be quantified. Results show that during 2000—2019, the Xiaolangdi Reservoir decreased the duration of flow cutoff events in the Lijin Section by 81. 15 d annually; decreased the annual substandard days of ecological baseflow, minimum ecological flow in the critical period, and suitable ecological flow in the critical period in the Lijin Section by 75. 25 d, 31. 35 d, and 27. 10 d, respectively; and increased the water into the sea in the critical period by 2. 371 billion m3 annually. Compared with the runoff in 1980—1999, the annual natural runoff of the Yellow River and the annual measured runoff in the Sanmenxia Section in 2000—2019 decreased by 10. 59% and 22. 15%, respectively, whereas the water consumption in the lower reaches increased, leading to difficulties in guaranteeing the ecological flow. The Xiaolangdi Reservoir has eliminated these adverse impacts and improved the condition of runoff and riverine ecosystem. The contribution rates of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir on flow cutoff prevention in the Lijin Section, ecological baseflow protection in the Lijin Section, and increase of water into the sea in critical periods are 187. 85%, 137. 32%, and 125. 83%, respectively.
尚文绣,彭少明,王煜,等.小浪底水利枢纽对黄河下游生态的影响分析[J].水资源保护,2022,38(1):160-166.(SHANG Wenxiu, PENG Shaoming, WANG Yu, et al. Influence of Xiaolangdi Reservoir on ecological condition of the Lower Yellow River[J]. Water Resources Protection,2022,38(1):160-166.(in Chinese))复制