Water resources constraints constitute a significant bottleneck in China. The origins of water are worth further research, as they relate to the Earth’s formation, the origins of the water globe, and the issue of deep water. First, we attempt to divide the hydrosphere into several belts and focus on the complex interaction between spherical layers. Then, water resources development issues are discussed, the concept of the comprehensive effect and related evaluation of the evolution of an entire basin is developed based on the spherical layer movement, and the evolution of the middle reaches of the Yellow River, the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River, and the inland river basin is analyzed based on this concept. Water resources development should consider three properties: limits, relativity, and ecology, as well as the instructive observation that water can carry a boat and also overturn a boat. The comprehensive development and utilization of water from six different sources, including rainwater, river water, lake water, groundwater, reservoir water, and sea water, are examined. We also discuss prevention and mitigation of six types of disasters related to the six water sources: flooding, waterlogging, drought, storm surges, geological disasters, and water pollution. It is pointed out that segmented control of water quality in the reservoir area, comprehensive development of surface water and groundwater, and construction of underground reservoirs are important. Finally, some suggestions for water resources development and disaster prevention are proposed: cooperation between multiple departments and multiple disciplines, implementation of water-saving measures, construction of an enhanced water resources network, determination of demand according to provision, and improvement of an investigation system for evaluation and development.