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    2023,41(1):1-9, 61, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.001
    Abstract:
    Based on the panel data of 31 provinces(autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government) from 2004 to 2019, the new urbanization development index was comprehensively measured from population, economy, space, society and ecology, and the water resource pressure index of each region was calculated by combining the water footprint and supply-demand balance. The spatial econometric model is used to explore the impact of new urbanization development on the spatial spillover of water resources pressure. The results showed that under the normal panel regression, the development level of new urbanization in China was positively correlated with water resources pressure, and the positive effect of new urbanization on water resources pressure was strengthened after further adding the spatial correlation factors. The improvement of new urbanization development level will bring obvious positive spillover effect to neighboring provinces. Based on the perspective of space spillover, the contradictions between development needs and resource pressure within and among provinces are well depicted, which can provide useful reference for the realization of high-quality development of new urbanization.
    2023,41(1):10-16, 30, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.002
    Abstract:
    In order to evaluate the comprehensive economic and social development level, the comprehensive water resources utilization level in the Yangtze River Basin and their internal relationship, the entropy method, panel cointegration theory and error correction model are used to analyze the panel Granger causality between economic & social development and water resource utilization in the basin from 2000 to 2017. The results show that there is a long-term cointegration relationship between economic & social development and water resource utilization in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin.In the long-term, the relationship between economic & social development and water resource utilization was bidirectional in the upstream region, while the link from economic & social development to water resource utilization in the midstream region, and the link from water resource utilization to economic & social development in the downstream region were unidirectional. The economic & social development and water resources utilization in the upstream region have a higher degree of correlation. In the short-term, only the downstream region has a unidirectional relationship from economic & social development to water resources utilization. Based on the different causal relationships between the two, provinces and cities should formulate water resources policies according to local conditions when formulating economic development plans, in order to achieve the coordinated development of economic society and water resources.
    2023,41(1):17-23, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.003
    Abstract:
    In order to comprehensively and objectively understand the research status and development trend of this field in China, 1217 papers related to the spatial balance of water resources in the CNKI database from 2000 to 2021 were analyzed by CiteSpace from the perspective of bibliometrics. In the preliminary retrieval, using
    2023,41(1):24-30, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.004
    Abstract:
    Cross-border water resources cooperation is of great significance to the construction of a community of shared future for Lancang-Mekong countries. International cooperation is an inevitable choice to solve the current problems of cross-border water resources cooperation. Due to the complexity of international hard law formulation and the uncertainty of implementation effect, cross-border water resources cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong River Basin can be carried out from the perspective of international soft law. The Lancang-Mekong water resources cooperation mechanism has made a series of achievements in mechanism construction, information sharing, scientific, technological and cultural exchanges, but it still needs to be improved by establishing joint management institutions, expanding its influence, encouraging the joint participation of basin countries, and increasing the types of cooperation subjects, so as to accelerate the pace of building a community of shared future for Lancang-Mekong countries and promote the economic and social development of Lancang-Mekong countries.
    2023,41(1):31-39, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.005
    Abstract:
    Carrying out cross-border river water resources cooperation is an effective way to solve the increasingly severe global shortage of freshwater resources and alleviate the conflict between resources and the environment. In order to analyze the strategic choices of various basin countries and promote the development of cross-border water resources cooperation, this paper introduces the excess benefits of cooperation, income distribution ratio, opportunity benefits, penalty costs and other influencing factors, and uses the evolutionary game model to discuss the dynamic evolution process of the game strategy of the basin countries and influencing factors. Further use the numerical simulation method to study the evolution law of inter-state strategies in cross-border river basins. The research shows that the lower the cost of water resources cooperation among river basin countries, the higher the excess returns generated by cooperative development, and the smaller the difference between the opportunity benefit of betrayal of cooperation and the penalty cost, all of which are conducive to the stable strategy of evolutionary games to cooperate with river basin countries development direction evolution. The distribution ratio of excess revenue affects the cooperation between countries in the basin, and the direction of influence depends on the cost and revenue distribution ratio of the input of both parties. Based on the discussion on the evolution law of inter-state cooperation in cross-border river basins, it can further provide reference for global cross-border river water resource dispute settlement and cooperative development.
    2023,41(1):40-46, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.006
    Abstract:
    From ecological security to ecological priority, it is the requirement of the times for high-quality economic development to allocate water resources in the river basin. From the perspective of ecological priority, a multi-agent cooperative allocation model of water resources in the basin was built, in which the multi-attribute index system, the index weight design and the DEA method were integrated to realize the reward and punishment mechanism.The effectiveness of the model was verified by taking the Nansi Lake Basin as an example. The paper aims to achieve the design and model of the reward and punishment mechanism for water resources allocation under ecological priority, through which the local governments would be forced to take the road of high-quality development of “water conservation, economic transformation and ecological protection”.
    2023,41(1):47-54, 61, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.007
    Abstract:
    Taking the Yangtze River Economic Belt as the research area, this article applies the environmental input-output model to calculate the virtual water consumption, embodied energy consumption and embodied carbon emissions of inter-provincial trade. Combined with the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, it can explore the water-energy-carbon nexus in different provinces and sectors. The results show that water, energy and carbon present significant consistency in different regions and sectors, among which the secondary industry and embodied energy-carbon have the strongest correlations.In the transfer of virtual water, embodied energy and embodied carbon,Jiangsu, Zhejiang were the hotspot areas, agricultural, construction industry and production and supply of electricity, heat, gas and water were important sectors. To future investigate water-energy-carbon nexus characteristics, the 11 provinces and cities were divided into 3 categories from the perspective of trade balance, which reveals that embodied water-energy-carbon pressure transferred from developed areas to less developed areas unequally. Therefore, the Yangtze River Economic Belt should focus on implementing the goals of water conservation, energy conservation and carbon reduction in key regions and sectors, promote low-carbon and green development of the industrial structure, and accelerate the formation of a regional collaborative governance system.
    2023,41(1):55-61, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.008
    Abstract:
    Guided by the theory and practice of extreme weather events and the “water-energy- food” nexus in domestic and foreign mega cities, this paper analyzes the prominent problems of external water resources, energy and food pressure in mega cities under extreme weather, and concludes that the “water-energy- food ”security risk of mega cities under extreme weather is complex and the security system is fragile, and extreme weather stimulates the resource demand of mega cities in a short time. It will aggravate the risk of resource supply interruption, thus affecting the resource security of mega cities. The security risk resilience governance path of “hardware”governance (resilient infrastructure construction) and “software” governance (point line surface multi-agent collaborative governance) is adopted to meet the challenge of “water-energy-food”security risk governance of mega cities under the current extreme weather.
    2023,41(1):62-71, 102, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.009
    Abstract:
    Gravity model and Penman formula were used to measure the grain virtual water flow interprovincially of the Yellow River Basin. Based on environmental, economic and social dimensions, the influence of grain virtual water flow on the spatial equilibrium of water resources in the Yellow River Basin was analyzed by comparing the Gini coefficient under the presence or not of virtual water flow. The results show that in the grain virtual water flow interprovincially of the Yellow River Basin in 2018, the flow of grain virtual water and virtual blue water in Shandong, Henan, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia were net outflow; those two kinds of flow in Shanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai were net inflow. The grain virtual water flow interprovincially of the Yellow River Basin can promote the spatial equilibrium of water resources to a certain extent in the environmental, economic and social dimensions, and the promotion effect in the environmental dimension is relatively weak.
    2023,41(1):72-77, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.010
    Abstract:
    In order to analyze the factors affecting the level of the ecological compensation mechanism and improve the efficiency of ecological compensation in the river basin, on the basis of document sorting and analysis, the 18 influencing factors that affect the ecological compensation efficiency in the river basin are summarized and analyzed based on the system dynamics model. The research uses VENSIM software to conduct model simulation analysis, conduct sensitivity analysis on the input changes of each influencing factor, and obtain the influence of each factor on the overall level of the system. The factors are divided into key, important and secondary levels according to the impact strength, and the countermeasures and suggestions for the establishment of the compensation mechanism are put forward respectively.
    2023,41(1):78-83, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.011
    Abstract:
    In order to further improve the effectiveness and stability of the watershed ecological compensation mechanism in Central and Western China, using the extended emergy model to calculate the watershed ecological compensation standard, constructing a two-dimensional mechanism classification framework to refine the mechanism type, determining the compensation amounts of the watershed government and its superior government according to the compensator's compensation willingness,and taking the Xinzhou section-Taiyuan section of the Fen River Basin as an example to confirm the feasibility of the mechanism.The results show that the uncoordinated mode of economic development and the complex and diverse ecological environment of large watershed in central and western China have increased the difficulty of local watershed ecological protection. The compensation standard should focus on ecological value, and special funds should be established as soon as possible under the compensation mechanism of watershed governments compensation and higher-level governments making-up to reasonably distribute the compensation amount, so as to ensure the effective implementation of the watershed ecological compensation policy.
    2023,41(1):84-88, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.012
    Abstract:
    Since ecological compensation has economic effects and public participation effects, based on this feature, when systematically studying upstream and downstream environmental protection and ecological compensation, by defining specific variables that affect the behavior choices of both parties in the game, an environmental protection-ecological compensation between upstream and downstream is established the game model of cost-benefit. The results show that in order to protect the environment and delay economic development, the upstream will not implement the environmental protection strategy.If the downstream area needs to give a large compensation, it will not implement the ecological compensation measures; the implementation of environmental protection strategies in upstream areas and the adoption of ecological compensation measures in downstream areas need to be based on certain conditions. The weaker the initial economic situation of the upstream, the lower the willingness of the upstream region to carry out environmental protection; the greater the compensation from the downstream to the upstream, the greater the compensation in the downstream the willingness to take measures will decrease.The better the initial economic situation in the downstream area, the higher the willingness to take compensation measures in the downstream area. When conducting ecological compensation game research on upstream and downstream stakeholders, we must consider their own development status.
    2023,41(1):89-93, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.013
    Abstract:
    Based on the analysis of the connotation of ecological products, the value realization mechanism of government-led, market transaction and social participation is analyzed, and three different types of practical exploration projects in the Yellow River Basin are illustrated, and then the difficulties in the realization of the value of ecological products are analyzed layer by layer. This paper proposes some innovative approaches, such as improving supply capacity, deepening market trading, strengthening financial support and enhancing cooperation level, to provide some theoretical support for reducing the obstacles of realizing the value of ecological products and improving the value diversification of ecological products in the Yellow River Basin.
    2023,41(1):94-102, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2023.01.014
    Abstract:
    Urban riverside green space landscape design is an important way to realize the value of ecological products, and the insufficient regional characteristics of traditional urban riverside green space landscape lead to serious homogenization of ecological products and lack of attractiveness in the ecological product market. Starting from the design of urban riverside green space landscape engineering, taking Quzhou Xin'an Lake Jiming Wetland and Qinglong Wharf as examples, this paper discusses the importance of the combination of urban riverside landscape design and regional characteristics to enhance the realization of ecological product value, and puts forward the relevant safeguard measures for urban riverside green space landscape design from three aspects:perfect urban transportation network, construction of supporting facilities and ecological product value accounting of riverside green space landscape, so as to provide reference value for the value realization mechanism of urban riverside green space landscape ecological products.
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      Abstract:
      Based on the theory of virtual water trade, the status of the virtual water trade of agricultural product between China and the countries along “Belt and Road” during the period from 2007 to 2016 is analyzed. The relevant influencing factors are analyzed by using the extended gravity model. The results show that from 2007 to 2016, the virtual water volume of agricultural products trade between China and the countries along “Belt and Road” is a deficit, and the average annual net import volume is 11. 789 billion m3. Among the influencing factors for the virtual water trade of agricultural products between China and the countries along “Belt and Road”, the most significant positive driving factors are infrastructure construction, exchange rate level, entry to WTO and regional integration process, and the most important reverse ones are geographic distance and tariff level. China has the positive advantages of agricultural labor.
      Abstract:
      The construction and management of national water parks is an important part of realizing water ecological civilization and beautiful China. The protection of national water parks requires an assessment of their non-market economic values(use values and non-use values). Based on the single-bound and double-bound dichotomous contingent valuation method techniques, the use values and non-use values of Yimenghu National Water Park are quantitatively evaluated. Four econometric models containing logistic, log-logistic, normal and log-normal are applied through questionnaire data. The results showed that: (1)The Yimenghu National Water Park is of high use values and non-use values. (2)The evaluated results of log-logistic and log-normal econometric models are more reliable in the double-bound dichotomous CVM technique. (3)The respondents are willing to participate in protection in the form of donations to non-profit organizations. The assessment achievements are helpful for the cost-benefit analysis of the protection and sustainable management policies of water parks.
      2020,38(1):14-20, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2020.01.003
      Abstract:
      From the demand of balance sheet compilation and asset management of water resources, the limitation of the current balance sheet compilation of water resources is discussed by regarding the regions as the subject. On this basis, according to the water administrative system in China, from the three levels of state(water conservancy project management departments, rivers and river basins), regions and enterprises, the multiple subjects of balance sheet compilation of water resources are studied. The roles of different subjects in compiling balance sheet of water resources are analyzed from the aspects of reflecting the development and management objectives of water resource assets, revealing the relationship between supply and demand of water resource assets, improving the level of water resource assets, and making decision of regional future industrial planning and development. This study is conducive to further promoting the preparation of the balance sheet of water resources, meeting the needs of improving the management level of water resource assets, improving the national economic accounting system, introducing the outgoing audit of natural resource assets of leading cadres and ecological civilization construction.
      2020,38(1):8-13, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2020.01.002
      Abstract:
      Based on the provincial panel data of the mainland China from 2000 to 2015, a threshold model is established to explore the relationship among industrial structure, technological progress and industrial wastewater discharge. The results show that: The influences of characteristics of the industrial structure on the industrial wastewater discharge are restricted by the double threshold effects of the technological progress, and when the technological progress is higher than the second threshold, the increase of the industrial economic proportion is no longer dependent on a greater increase in the industrial wastewater discharge. As a threshold variable, the technological progress in different regions of China has significant differences. The technological progress in the eastern, central and western regions has a decrease trend. The other influencing factors such as population size, output level and opening degree all play significant positive roles in promoting the industrial wastewater discharge, while the technological progress inhibits the industrial wastewater discharge. On this basis, some countermeasures and suggestions are put forward so as to reduce the level of regional industrial wastewater discharge and realize the goal of green development of industrial economy: improving the scientific and technological innovation system, increasing the investment in scientific and technological research and development, and constructing the compensation mechanism of trans-regional ecological technology.
      2020,38(1):36-41, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2020.01.006
      Abstract:
      Based on the LMDI method of aggregate of the sum of polynomial multiplication and vector form, the decomposition framework of population-residential consumption-water intensity in the process of urbanization is established, and the factors influencing the water consumption from 2003 to 2016 are analyzed. The research shows that expansion and urbanization of population positively promote the growth of water consumption, and the effect of the former is stronger than that of the latter. The improvement of residents' consumption level is the absolute leading factor driving the growth of water consumption. The optimization and upgrading of residential consumption structure and the increase of residential consumption rate can effectively suppress the consumption of water resources, and the effect of the former is more significant. The decline in water consumption is mainly due to the advancement of industrial technology. The growth of households' water consumption mainly comes from the effect of water intensity of life. It is further pointed out that we should reasonably control the size and movement of population, accelerate the optimization and upgrading of residents' consumption structure, focus on strengthening the innovation of industrial technology, deepen the potential of agricultural water-saving efficiency, and enhance residential consumption rate to achieve relative water saving under the given economic scale.
      2020,38(1):29-35, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2020.01.005
      Abstract:
      In order to explore its application benefits, an evaluation index system for the application benefit of BIM in hydraulic engineering is established from the perspectives of economy, resources and energy, technology and management on the basis of literature reading. Firstly, using the SEM idea, a questionnaire survey is used to conduct the confirmatory factor analysis of the evaluation system, and thus the index weights are obtained accordingly. Secondly, an evaluation model for the application benefits of BIM in hydraulic engineering is established by using the cloud matter-element theory. Finally, a case study of a water conservancy project in Guangxi Province is carried out. The results show that the level of application benefits of BIM is Grade 3 with good benefits. Accordingly, the relevant suggestions are put forward to promote the further development of BIM in hydraulic engineering.
      2020,38(1):49-53, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2020.01.008
      Abstract:
      By analyzing the process of agricultural water price reform in China, the stakeholders involved in the comprehensive reform of agricultural water price are divided into four categories of influencers, bearers, implementers of agricultural water price and managers of farmland water conservancy facilities based on the stakeholder theory. Their powers and interests are analyzed to clarify the intrinsic relationship among the stakeholders in the comprehensive reform of agricultural water price. It is pug forward that the influencers of agricultural water price will help to improve the bearers' cooperation by improving the reform environment. The cooperation between them will help to optimize the interests of both parties. The operational efficiency of implementers of agricultural water price and managers of farmland water conservancy has an important regulatory effect on the interests of influencers and bearers of agricultural water price, but the operational efficiency requires a certain amount of financial support. Finally, some reasonable suggestions for the comprehensive reform of agricultural water price in China are given.
      2020,38(1):54-60, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2020.01.009
      Abstract:
      Based on the SBM-DEA model with effective efficiency frontier(optimistic)and inefficiency frontier(pessimistic), the agricultural water use efficiency of China's 31 provinces(municipalities and autonomous regions)from 2003 to 2017 is evaluated, and the Tobit model is used to analyze its influencing factors. The results show that the optimistic efficiency of China's agricultural water use has a small increase trend, and the pessimistic efficiency exhibits a decrease-increase-decrease-increase trend. The overall efficiency is not high. The difference in water use efficiency between different agricultural water zones is small. The high agricultural water use area has the highest agricultural water use efficiency, the middle agricultural water use area has the middle agricultural water use efficiency, and the low agricultural water use area has the lowest agricultural water use efficiency. The proportion of the value added of the primary industry in the regional GDP, the water-saving irrigation technology and the total storage capacity of reservoirs significantly positively correlate with the agricultural water use efficiency. While the endowment of water resources and regional education level significantly negatively correlate with the agricultural water use efficiency.
      Abstract:
      The remaining 30 provinces of China except Tibet are divided into three parts, east, middle and west based on the SBM model and the ML index. The static and dynamic changes of green efficiency of water resources are analyzed, and the Theil index is used to analyze the spatial distribution differences of green efficiency of utilization of water resources among various provinces. The results show that: (1)The green efficiency of utilization of water resources in China varies from province to province, indicating a slow rising trend. The green efficiency of utilization of water resources in different regions shows a pattern of in the east>middle>west. (2)The technological progress index is the main factor affecting the efficiency of water resource. (3)The difference in green efficiency of utilization of water resources among various regions is much higher than that within the regions, and the eastern part has the largest contribution rate.
      Abstract:
      Based on the mechanism of environmental regulation on the transformation of manufacturing industry under the innovation-driven background, the intermediary effect of innovation on the relationship between environmental regulation and manufacturing industry transformation is empirically studied using the panel data of 11 provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2005 to 2016. The results show that the effect of environmental regulation on the transformation of manufacturing industry has a double threshold effect under the innovation-driven background. In different ranges of innovation-driven background, the effect of environmental regulation on transformation of manufacturing industry has different directions and degrees. Therefore, attention should be paid to the synergy of innovation-driven background and environmental regulation, and the environmental regulation policies should be formulated according to local conditions. Simultaneously, the following measures should be taken to realize the transformation of manufacturing industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt: rational allocation of fixed assets, increase of investment in education, guidance for the direction of financial expenditure, strict examination of the threshold of foreign investment access, and introduction of advanced technology.
      2020,38(1):42-48, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2020.01.007
      Abstract:
      Based on the establishment of trans-logarithmic production function of agriculture which includes investment in farmland water conservancy, the stochastic frontier approach is used to calculate the total factor productivity of agriculture in 31 provinces(municipalities and autonomous regions)of China from 1996 to 2015. The spatial characteristics of the total factor productivity of agriculture and the influences of investment in farmland water conservancy are analyzed. The results show that the growth of the total factor productivity in China generally has an increasing trend. The horizontal and vertical analyses shows that the growth has regional property and regional agglomeration. The influences of investment in farmland water conservancy infrastructure on the total factor productivity of agriculture are positive, and they have weak spillover effect. Among them, the direct, indirect and total effects are 0. 2865, 0. 0574 and 0. 3439, respectively.
      2020,38(1):21-28, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2020.01.004
      Abstract:
      The water resources are the important natural resources to maintain human life and social development. The balance sheet of water resources is an important component of the balance sheet of the natural resources. The compilation of the balance sheet of water resources is conducive to timely grasping the dynamic change of occupancy, use, consumption, recovery and value-added of water resource assets in economic and social development. A framework for accounting the balance sheet of water resources is established based on the concepts of assets and liabilities of water resources. It is of great significance to the compilation of balance sheet of water resources in a watershed.
      2020,38(1):61-67, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2020.01.010
      Abstract:
      Taking Suzhou City and Suqian City as examples, the dynamic changes and obstacles of the carrying capacity of the transfer and receiving regions of water environment during the industrial transfer process are discussed based on the TOPSIS method of Vague sets so as to provide theoretical guidance. The study shows that with the advancement of industrial transfer, the carrying capacities of water environment in Suzhou City and Suqian City have an increasing trend and have achieved a win-win relationship. Although the overall carrying capacity of water environment in Suzhou Sity is higher than that of Suqian City, the increase rate is significantly smaller. In terms of the obstacles, the main obstacles in Suzhou City are concentrated in the resource subsystem and environmental subsystem, while those in Suqian City are concentrated in the economic subsystem and resource subsystem, which need to be optimized and improved.
      Abstract:
      The fairness of water utilization in Hubei Province is analyzed from the three aspects of water resource endowment, water for production and domestic water. The Gini coefficients of total water consumption-water resource quantity, production water consumption-GDP, and domestic water consumption-population in Hubei Province in the spatial and temporal dimension are calculated. The results show that the total water consumption and water resource quantity of various cities in Hubei Province are very unevenly distributed, while the changes in the same area during 2006—2016 are uneven only in Xiaogan City and Suizhou City. During the 11 years of the research period, the fairness of water for production remains stable in the range of “relatively reasonable”, while in Wuhan City and Xiantao City with higher water efficiency, it is uneven. Therefore, to improve the water efficiency in the other regions is the best way to improve the fairness of water for production. The domestic water has reached the absolute fairness in both spatial and temporal dimensions.
      Abstract:
      In the background of the protection of Yangtze River, realizing high-efficient development of green ecology should be taken as part of the high-quality development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Therefore, focusing on the evaluation and improvement of hydropower energy efficiency in Yangtze River and comprehensively considering social, economic and environmental factors, an input-output index system is established. Based on the hydropower-related panel data of the various provinces along Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2008 to 2017, the DEA method is used to evaluate the hydropower energy efficiency of each region. The results show that the hydropower energy efficiency of Yangtze River Economic Belt is at high level as a whole, and Jiangsu Province and Hubei Province are the “benchmarking” regions. The index efficient score of the urban agglomeration in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River is generally high. Different provinces have different energy efficiency improvement directions, that is, Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province should reduce the investment in human capital, while Anhui Province and Jiangxi Province should increase the equipment utilization hours of the installed hydropower, and Chongqing Municipality and Guizhou Province firstly should develop local economy with high quality and improve the rate of return of the fixed asset investment. Some suggestions are put forward: development of hydropower with high quality, rigid constraint of water resources, establishment of green hydropower certification system, improvement of investment subsidy system, optimization of the balance between supply and demand, and training of high-level talents.
      2021,39(1):6-14, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2021.01.002
      Abstract:
      Based on the panel data of 9 provinces and 2 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2008 to 2017, the decoupling-PVAR two-stage model is used to analyze the evolution trend and impact mechanism of the relationship among new urbanization, upgradation of industrial structure and water pollution. This study shows that: The relationship among water pollution, new urbanization, and industrial structure exhibits the evolutionary trend of “expansion negative decoupling-strong decoupling”, indicating that the urbanization and industrialization of the Yangtze River Economic Belt have experienced “pollution first, then governance” at this stage, but ultimately achieved the dual goals of economic development and water pollution improvement. The results of impulse response and variance decomposition indicate that the water pollution control effect of new urbanization at this stage is not obvious, there is a clear negative relationship between water pollution and upgradation of industrial structure, and the former has a stronger explanatory effect on the latter. The variances of the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Economic Belt are decomposed, respectively, and it is found that there are obvious regional differences in the degree of mutual influences between the variables. The prevention and control policies for water pollution should be formulated according to specific situations.
      Abstract:
      The degrees of human-water harmony in 31 provinces of China from 2007 to 2016 are evaluated, and the DEA model is used to calculate the total factor utilization efficiency of water resources. The Tobit model is employed to investigate the effect of utilization efficiency of water resources on human-water harmony. The empirical results show that in recent years, the degrees of human-water harmony and the utilization efficiency of water resources in China have an increasing trend. Both the intensity control policy and the total control policy have effectively improved the degrees of human-water harmony in China, and the combined intensity-total control policy has a better efficiency. The improvement of utilization efficiency of water resources promotes the degrees of human-water harmony in the central and western regions, but not in the eastern regions. This is due to the differences in the development level, technological progress and natural environment between the eastern and central and western regions. Finally, the corresponding policy recommendations are put forward.
      Abstract:
      Based on the dynamic panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2016, the deepening level of financial capital is measured from the scale and structure of capital supply. The quality of economic development is measured by using the five dimensions of effectiveness, stability, coordination, sustainability and sharing of economic growth. The influences of deepening the financial capital on the quality of economic growth are investigated by means of the estimation method of system GMM model. The results show that the current scale of capital supply has inhibitory effects on the quality of economic growth. The deepening of bank capital and insurance capital has positive effects on the quality of economic growth. The deepening of security capital has no significant effects on the quality of economic growth. There are regional differences in the effects of deepening financial capital on the quality of economic growth.
      2019,37(1):7-12, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1003-9511.2019.01.002
      Abstract:
      According to the input-output tables of Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai area in 2002, 2007 and 2012, using the social network analysis its industrial linkage network is formulated from the perspective of water resource input-output. The relevant indices such as characteristic path length, clustering coefficient, centrality and cohesive subgroup are calculated, and the industrial linkages in the total Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai area and various provinces and city are compared and analyzed. The results show that there is a small-world property and high network density with close industrial linkage. The chemical industry representing the industrial sector is of outstanding centrality and is the central industry in the area, and the status of service sector has increased, but the disproportion is even more prominent. Now eight cohesive subgroups are formed, and the linkage between their industrial sectors, which indicates the trend of development is clustering. Some suggestions are put forward in order to promote the balanced and sustainable development under water resource constraints, such as saving and using water intensively on central industry, improving the utilization of water resources, formulating different policies on water resources and promoting industry integration.
      Abstract:
      Based on the risk and opportunity of the shipping industry under the new situation, the financing problems of small and medium-sized shipping companies in China are analyzed. Firstly the current financing situations and characteristics of the small and medium-sized shipping companies are reviewed. And then the basic financing ways of shipping enterprises are summarized, and the opportunities and challenges of small and medium-sized shipping companies under the strategic background of "One Belt and One Road" are further analyzed. Finally some policy suggestions are put forward to improve the financing environment for small and medium-sized shipping companies from three aspects of the government, financial institutions and enterprises.

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