(1.南京水利科学研究院水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室,江苏 南京 210029;2.江苏省城镇化和城乡规划研究中心、江苏 南京 210000)
(1. State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210000, China;2. Urbanization and Urban-Rural Planning Research Center of Jiangsu, Nanjing 210000, China)
针对面源污染为主的湖库型流域,为建立水质目标管理与污染总量控制之间更精准的响应关系,借鉴日最大负荷总量模式,基于物质量平衡原理提出考虑径流丰枯变化、不均匀混合、大气沉降等影响因素的湖库分区动态水环境容量精细解析方法,包括污染混合区设置、代表水文系列确定、逐日分区水量水质计算。以沙河水库为例,分别以全湖Ⅱ类、主湖Ⅱ类作为水质管理目标,采用2010—2015年代表水文系列对总氮动态水环境容量进行精细解析。结果表明:全湖Ⅱ类、主湖Ⅱ类水质管理目标下沙河水库总氮水环境容量的多年均值分别为36.7 t和99.43 t,若不考虑湖滨混合区,全湖Ⅱ类水质目标下总氮的年水环境容量计算值偏大66.43%；实施水质目标管理的水域面积越大,大气沉降对水环境容量的影响越大；径流年际及年内丰枯变化对水环境容量的影响显著；各分区总氮控制总量占全流域总量的比例与面积比基本一致。湖库分区动态水环境容量精细解析可量化不同因素对水环境容量计算结果的影响,科学解析面源输入型湖库水环境容量的时空结构特征,实现水质目标管理与污染总量分区管控的有机联动,更好地支撑流域水环境的精细化管理。
In order to establish a more accurate response relationship between water quality target management of non-point source inputting lakes and reservoirs and total pollution load control in the river basin, a detailed analysis method of dynamic water environment capacity of lakes and reservoirs based on mass balance was proposed with reference to total maximum daily loads, including pollution mixing zone setting, representative hydrological series selection,and daily 2D water quality calculation, with consideration of the influence factors, including runoff variation, inhomogeneous mixing, atmospheric deposition, etc. The Shahe Reservoir in the western hilly area of the Taihu Lake Basin was used as a case study. The dynamic water environment capacity of total nitrogen (TN) was analyzed with the level-Ⅱ water quality for the whole lake and the main lake area, respectively, by using the representative hydrological series from 2010 to 2015. The results show that the annual average values of TN water environment capacity are 36.7 t and 99.43 t under the level-Ⅱ water quality for the whole lake and the main lake area, respectively; if the lakeside mixing zone is not considered, the calculation result of annual TN water environment capacity increases by 66.43%; the larger the area of the water area where the water quality target management is implemented, the greater the influence of atmospheric deposition on the water environment capacity; the inter-annual and intra-annual variations of runoff have significant impact on the water environment capacity; and the ratio of total TN control of each subzone to that of the whole river basin is basically consistent with the area ratio. The method can scientifically analyze spatial and temporal characteristics of the water environment capacity of non-point source inputting lakes and reservoirs, and the results could better support the fine management of the river basin water environment by establishing well link between water quality target management and spatial control of total pollution loads.
陈炼钢,孙玉莹,叶兴平,等.考虑大气沉降的湖库分区动态水环境容量精细解析[J].水资源保护,2023,39(1):174-180, 189.(CHEN Liangang, SUN Yuying, YE Xingping, et al. Fine analysis of dynamic water environment capacity of lakes and reservoirs in consideration of atmospheric deposition[J]. Water Resources Protection,2023,39(1):174-180, 189.(in Chinese))复制