“十三五”国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0401402)；国家自然科学基金(51679089, 51609084, 51709017)
为量化冬小麦对水资源的消耗、合理利用区域水资源，基于彭曼公式、日尺度土壤水量平衡与通径分析法核算了1958—2016年海河流域冬小麦水足迹，分析了气象、农业生产投入因素对冬小麦水足迹的直接和间接影响。结果表明:流域冬小麦多年平均总水足迹为239.6亿m3，平均水足迹为1 840 m3/t；海河流域冬小麦水足迹呈整体下降趋势，空间上京津地区最高，山西次之，山东、河南地区最低；农业机械总动力、化肥施用折纯量对冬小麦水足迹直接影响最大；气象因素主要通过农业生产投入因素对冬小麦水足迹产生影响。可通过提高农业生产力的方式降低冬小麦水足迹，京津等灰水足迹较高的地区应减少施肥。
In order to quantify the water consumption of winter wheat, and make use of the regional water resources rationally, water footprint of winter wheat in Haihe River Basin from 1958 to 2016 was accounted, and direct and indirect effects of meteorological and agricultural input on water footprint of winter wheat was analyzed based on Penman formula, daily scale soil water balance and path analysis. The results show that the years average total water footprint of winter wheat in the basin was 239. 6 billion m3 and the average unit water footprint was 1 840 m3/t. The water footprint shows a significantly decreasing trend. The water footprint was heterogeneous in space with the largest water footprint in Beijing and Tianjin, followed by Shanxi, Shandong and Henan. The total power of agricultural machinery and the amount of converted fertilizer application have the biggest direct effect on the water footprint of winter wheat. Meteorological factors influence water footprint of winter wheat mainly by input factors of agricultural production. Water footprint of winter wheat can be reduced by increasing agricultural productivity. Fertilization should be reduced in areas with high grey water footprint, such as Beijing and Tianjin.
韩宇平,贾冬冬,黄会平,等.基于通径分析的海河流域冬小麦水足迹及影响因素[J].水资源保护,2019,35(1):6-13.(HAN Yuping, JIA Dongdong, HUANG Huiping, et al. Water footprint of winter wheat and its influencing factors in Haihe River Basin based on path analysis[J]. Water Resources Protection,2019,35(1):6-13.(in Chinese))复制