根据实际资料分析了近年鄱阳湖环境面貌剧烈变化的原因和湖口建闸的影响，结果表明:当前鄱阳湖汛后提前干枯主要是长江上游水库群改变了河川径流节律，减少汛后水量，使河湖提前入枯和河道大幅冲刷，全线汛后水位平均降低2~4 m(湖口2.76 m)，径流减少是主要原因；鄱阳湖大量采砂已经破坏了入江水道的自然水力顶托机制，使枯季(2—3月)湖区(都昌)平均水位降低2 m，这是鄱阳湖连续出现极低水位的原因；鄱阳湖流域水库拦截和长江汛期洪水减少、湖水位降低和持水量减少等，也使近年8—10月湖口入湖和出湖流量大幅度减少，加剧了湖区汛后水位降低，特别是鄱阳湖七河尾闾干旱。上述变化已经对湖区生态环境和周边生产生活影响很大，但鄱阳湖基本自然特征没有改变。湖口建闸是可控制湖区汛后水位消落和抬高枯水位，但是建闸隔断江湖，对洄游鱼类生存、鸟类生境和湖区环境影响很大；长江受三峡大坝隔断后，再在湖口建闸将严重肢解流域自然生态系统，使长江生境多样性彻底丧失；而且建闸还将进一步加剧长江下游水位降低，改变河湖面貌，降低环境容量和河口抵御咸潮能力。解决鄱阳湖问题应该在长江流域层面统筹寻找对策，建议严格坚持三峡工程规划确定的主要防大洪水原则，适当调整流域总体规划，提高湖区流域水利工程调节能力和增加汛后补水，修复鄱阳湖入江水道，加强鄱阳湖及周边适应能力建设等。
According to in-situ data analysis, the causes of eco-problem in hydro-environmental variation in recent year in Poyang Lake in the lower Yangtze River, and the effect of awidely concerned sluice gate at its outlet are discussed. It is revealed that 1)the ahead of time dry-up after flood seasons is mainly due to the reservoirs impoundment in the upper reach of the Yangtze River, that changed the runoff regime and caused an ahead-seasonal drying in water level for 2-4 m all the way along the Yangtze; 2)massive sand-mining in the outlet channel of Poyang Lake has destructed the natural hydraulic mechanism that elevated the pool in dry seasons, causing a 2 m lowering from February to march at Duchang; 3)retention of reservoirs in the Poyang basin and the general loweredsummer pool in Poyang lake also diminish the after-flood discharge of the lake(August to October), exacerbating the extreme drying especially for the lakes delta regions after season. A sluice gate at the lakes outlet can hold-up and even elevate the lakes pool, but it can also obstruct the migration of fishes for about half-year and impact the habitat and food sources for migratory birds and the water quality of the lake as it becomes an artificial impoundment from riverine regime by the gate in dry seasons. It is also worth worrying about more possible problems for the Yangtze ecosystem as a whole in habitat diversity from the gates, as dams will be thoroughly partitioned in addition to the Three Gorges dam, with more negative effect on fluvial morphology, water level in dry seasons, tidal limits and salt water intrusion. Finally, five countermeasures for comprehensive restoration of both the Yangtze and the Poyang Lake were proposed.
周建军,张曼.长江鄱阳湖问题的原因及湖口建闸的影响[J].水资源保护,2019,35(2):1-12.(ZHOU Jianjun, ZHANG Man. Eco-problem of Poyang Lake in Yangtze River and effect of sluice gate construction at lakes outlet[J]. Water Resources Protection,2019,35(2):1-12.(in Chinese))复制