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    Abstract:
    In order to systematically evaluate the water ecological security in the Poyang Lake Basin,the water ecological footprint and water ecological carrying capacity were calculated based on the ecological footprint model. In addition,the ecological pressure of water resources was evaluated from the dimensions of water ecological surplus,water ecological footprint of GDP,and eco-economic coordination index. The results show that agricultural water resources ecological footprint is the main type of water ecological footprint in the study area,and Yichun City is the region with the most ecological footprint. All cities are in the state of an ecological surplus,while the water ecological carrying capacity in most areas decreased. Agricultural water and water pollution should be paid more attention to among the factors producing water ecological footprint. The water ecological footprint of GDP decreased year by year,and the eco-economic coordination of water resources in Pingxiang City and Ji’an City declined. All cities should aim for green development,pay attention to the consumption intensity of water resources,and ensure the sustainable use of water resources by establishing and improving the mechanism of agricultural water price,and continuously strengthening water environment management.
    2022,38(3):9-16, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.002
    Abstract:
    For the uncertainty in the forecast of rainstorm resistance capacity of small- and medium-sized reservoirs, a method of constructing rainfall scenarios considering the joint probability distribution of rainfall amount and duration was proposed, alleviating the impact of the difference in rainfall duration or rain type on the forecast result and realizing the probability forecast of rainstorm resistance capacity of small- and medium-sized reservoirs. A joint probability distribution of rainfall amount and duration was built based on the Copula function and combined with the corresponding rain type at each duration to generate rainfall processes and probabilities at the same rainfall amount. Taking the probabilistic rainfall scenario as the input, the rainstorm resistance capacity of reservoirs was calculated, and the threshold interval and probability distribution were obtained. The results of a case study show that the method considers the impacts of probabilities of different rainfall durations on inflow of reservoirs, and provides a feasible rainfall scenario construction method for the probability forecast of rainstorm resistance capacity of small- and medium-sized reservoirs.
    2022,38(3):17-24, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.003
    Abstract:
    The changing pattern of the Yangtze River shoreline utilization rate in Jiangsu Province from 2002 to 2018 was analyzed based on related data. Principal component analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to analyze factors that may affect the Yangtze River shoreline utilization rate. The results show that the utilization rate of the Yangtze River shoreline in Jiangsu Province gradually increased with time, and the change of shoreline utilization rate can be divided into two stages. Before 2016, the increase in the utilization rate of the shoreline had a significant effect on promoting social and economic development; after 2016, more attention has been placed on the improvement of efficiency of shoreline utilization. It is also concluded that the number of employees, the number of factories, and the throughput of inland river ports are currently the most important factors of the utilization rate of the Yangtze River shoreline in Jiangsu Province. Through implementing the ecological and environmental protection measures of the Yangtze River shoreline, the industrial structure can be further optimized, the utilization efficiency of the shoreline can be improved, and the high-quality development of Jiangsu Province can be promoted.
    2022,38(3):25-33, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.004
    Abstract:
    Aiming at the goal of building Happy River and realizing river and lake governance in the new era, an evaluation index system of Happy River, including 23 core indexes and 27 optional indexes, was established based on ERG (existence relevance growth) demand model. Using MATLAB software, taking Happy River grade index as the target, the nonlinear relationship between Happy River evaluation index value and Happy River grade index was established by using projection pursuit model, and the Happy River grade evaluation model based on improved particle swarm optimization projection pursuit evaluation (IPSO-PPE) was constructed to realize the quantitative evaluation of Happy River. Taking Gansu section of the main stream of the Yellow River as an example, the change trend of Happy River grade index from 2010 to 2018 was analyzed. The results show that the grade index of Happy River in Gansu section of the main stream of the Yellow River shows an upward trend as a whole, from grade E (unhappiness) in 2010 to grade B (higher happiness index) in 2018. The coincidence rate between the evaluation results and the results of GRA-TOPSIS method is 88.9%, which can better reflect the actual situation of Gansu section of the Yellow River. Soil erosion, flood disaster in the basin and the satisfaction degree of river ecological base flow are the main factors restricting the grade index of Happy River in Gansu section of the Yellow River.
    2022,38(3):34-42, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.005
    Abstract:
    In order to investigate the variation of water temperature at the head area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) from 2003 to 2018 and its impact on the ecological environment, the LSTM-Logistic model was used to simulate the multi-year water temperature process based on the field data at the Miaohe hydrological station. The influences of its variation on algal blooms in the tributary bay and the spawning water temperature of the downstream fish are discussed. The results show that the LSTM-Logistic model is applicable to the TGR, and it can accurately simulate the daily variation of water temperature. From 2006 to 2013, thermal stratification occurred at the head of the TGR from April to June. In 2014, the vertical differences of water temperature began to decrease and stratification disappeared. The average water temperature increased in spring, autumn, and winter, and the discharge water temperature further flattened. The long-term warming trend of the water temperature at the head area of the TGR will reduce the depth of the plunging point of the density current from the tributary bay, affect the pattern of the density current, and reduce the risk of algal blooms in the tributary bay. After the impoundment of the upstream cascade reservoirs, the impact caused by cold discharge water in spring is partly mitigated, while the increase of the water temperature in autumn and winter further threatened the spawning of Chinese sturgeon.
    2022,38(3):43-49, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.006
    Abstract:
    Aiming at the problem of serious overflow pollution and black odor of urban water body in rainy days, taking the combined pipe network system in a high-density urban area of Yinchuan City as an example, based on SWMM model, under the conditions of short-term design rainfall and long-term design rainfall, the impact of “grey-green” synergistic measures, such as combined sewer overflow (CSO) storage tank, mixed and wrong connection of rainwater and sewage pipelines and sponge transformation of green belt, on CSO pollution were simulated and analysed. The results show that under the short-term and long-term design rainfall conditions, four schemes of CSO storage tank, mixed and wrong connection of rainwater and sewage pipelines, sponge transformation of green belt, and “gray-green” combination measure, can lead to the increase of the amount of overflow water and the load of overflow pollutants with the increase of precipitation, and the overflow reduction rate decreases gradually. Among them, the “gray-green” combination measure has the most significant effect on the reduction of overflow pollution. When the return period is less than 5a, the reduction rate of overflow water volume and the reduction rate of overflow pollutant load basically reach 80%. When the rainfall condition is moderate rain, the pollutant load reduction rate basically reaches 75%. When the return period is 20a, the reduction rates of overflow water and the load reduction rates of TSS, COD, TP and NH4+-N reach 64%, 70%, 70% and 70%, respectively. When the rainfall condition is heavy rain, the reduction rates of overflow water and the load reduction rates of TSS, COD, TP and NH4+-N reach 28%, 32%, 26%, 31% and 33%, respectively.
    2022,38(3):50-57, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.007
    Abstract:
    Taking a sewage treatment plant in south China as an example, the evaluation of water quality and efficiency was carried out according to the drainage zone. The results show that the main problem in the service scope is the incomplete construction and serious external water invasion of the sewage system, where the water infiltration rate accounts for 21% and 54% respectively in sunny and rainy days. Combined with the information of comprehensive drainage network investigation, the priority and severity of problems in each district are determined. The current focus of improving the quality and efficiency of urban system is to separate the clean water and the wastewater. It is suggested that we should pay attention to both water quantity and quality, both the whole and part in the evaluation of sewage system, so as to effectively identify the main direction for improving the quality and efficiency of the sewage system and formulate corresponding strategies.
    2022,38(3):58-64, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.008
    Abstract:
    Considering the water quantity and water quality of regional water resources comprehensively, a multi-objective regional water quantity and water quality joint allocation model was established, with the goals of maximizing the net benefit of water supply and minimizing the total water shortage, and COD emission in the region. To improve the calculation accuracy and global optimization ability, the particle swarm optimization algorithm was improved and used to solve the model. A case study of Jingjiang City in Jiangsu Province shows that the total water consumption and COD emission in both the basic scheme and water-saving scheme are within their limits. The net benefit of water supply in the water-saving scheme is 300 million CNY lower than that in the basic scheme, and the water shortage and COD emission in the water-saving scheme are 12.9 million m3 and 1 062.7t lower than those in the basic scheme, demonstrating that the joint allocation scheme formulated in this paper is reasonable and feasible. The allocation of regional water resources under the water-saving scheme can alleviate regional water shortage, and also effectively reduce COD emission, which can provide a reference for decision-making in solving the problem of regional water shortage induced by water quality.
    2022,38(3):65-71, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.009
    Abstract:
    Based on the economic and social indicators and water resources data of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Greater Bay Area from 2009 to 2019, the spatial equilibrium of population, GDP and water resources was studied through Theil index and Gini coefficient, and the water resources load index model was constructed to analyze the degree of regional water resources development. The results showed that the matching degree between population and water resources, GDP and water resources in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Greater Bay Area was low in 2019, and the Gini coefficient was 0.520 and 0.651,respectively, which belonged to a highly uneven level, and the Gini coefficient showed an upward trend. The same conclusion was obtained through the Theil index. Inter-regional differences contribute greatly to the overall difference, while the matching gap between population, GDP and water resources in the region was not prominent. In 2019, the water resources load index of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Greater Bay Area was 4.0, the grade was grade III, and the degree of development and utilization was at the medium level. The water resources load gap among cities was wide, and showed an increasing trend year by year. Areas with large economic aggregate, dense population and relatively insufficient water resources had high degree of development and utilization and low potential. The spatial distribution of water resources in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Greater Bay Area is not coordinated with the layout of productivity, and the spatial imbalance of water resources has a trend of further aggravation.
    2022,38(3):72-79, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.010
    Abstract:
    Based on historical tidal data from tide gauge stations in the Pearl River Estuary from 1970 to 2018 and the storm surge simulation results, the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and influencing mechanisms of storm surge in the Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Greater Bay Area were analyzed. The results show that high surges frequently occurred in the Lingdingyang, Shiziyang, and front navigation route areas, which was related to the special geographical position of the region and energy convergence due to the funnel shape of the Lingdingyang Estuary. Surge extremes were affected by the landfall position and strength of typhoons. Storm surges mainly occurred in July, August and September, accounting for 74.4% of the total of the year. The frequency of severe typhoons affecting the Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Greater Bay Area increased significantly, and the extreme tide level at each station showed an increasing trend year by year, with an average rate of 0.02 to 0.03m/a. The typhoon track greatly influenced the spatial distribution of storm surge, and the location about 2.5 times the radius of the maximum wind speed from the typhoon landfall position can produce a large storm surge value when the landfall position was on the west coast of the Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Greater Bay Area. The maximum surge value increased with the decrease of pressure at the typhoon center, with a rate of about 0.4 to 1.1m surge increment for each 10hPa decrease of pressure. When the typhoon speed was up to 8.3m/s, a relatively stable gradient of water level could be formed in the Pearl River Estuary, leading to a high storm surge.
    2022,38(3):80-86, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.011
    Abstract:
    The standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized runoff index (SRI) were used to characterize the meteorological and hydrological drought processes of the Yellow River source region, respectively. The SRI of the Tangnaihai hydrological station, the SPI of the Yellow River source region, and three wavelet analysis methods were used to reveal the periodic characteristics of and the correlation between meteorological and hydrological drought processes in the Yellow River source region from 1968 to 2020. The results show that the generalized extreme value distribution was the most suitable distribution function for streamflow at the Tangnaihai hydrological station. Using the Gamma distribution and generalized extreme value distribution as distribution functions of precipitation and discharge, respectively, the correlation coefficient between SPI-9 and SRI-1 was the highest, which was 0.68, based on the inverse distance weighting method. The results from continuous wavelet transform analysis show that SPI-9 and SRI-1 had the same periodic characteristics. A significant positive correlation between SPI-9 and SRI-1 at different periodic scales was found based on cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence. The propagation time from meteorological drought to hydrological drought was nine months, and SPI-9 series could be used to monitor hydrological droughts in the Yellow River source region.
    2022,38(3):87-95, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.012
    Abstract:
    Based on the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and standardized runoff index (SRI), the differences between spatio-temporal distributions of meteorological drought and hydrological drought in the Yellow River Basin were compared, and their correlation was analyzed on time scale. Several typical drought events were selected to explore the propagation relationship between the two types of droughts. The results show that the two types of droughts have similar drought trend and frequency in space, but there are significant differences in the source area of the Yellow River and the south-central part of the Yellow River (the Weihe River Basin). The drought duration is prolonged every decade, especially the hydrological drought duration. In terms of time scale correspondence, SPEI and SRI are basically consistent in most regions, while there are significant differences in the source area of the Yellow River and the Weihe River Basin, especially on a short time scale. A meteorological drought does not correspond to a hydrological drought one by one. Affected by time lag effect and abnormal meteorological fluctuation, multiple short-term meteorological droughts may jointly trigger a long-term continuous hydrological drought or multiple short-term hydrological droughts. A long-term continuous meteorological drought may cause multiple short-term hydrological droughts due to intensity attenuation.
    2022,38(3):96-101, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.013
    Abstract:
    The effects of rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, rainfall peak coefficient, and rainfall pattern on the runoff coefficient of semi-permeable roads were systematically investigated via physical model experiments with simulated rainfall events. The results show that runoff coefficient increases with rainfall return period, with the value increasing from 0.093 to 0.377 when the return period is varied from 0.5a to 20a; it also decreases with the increase of rainfall duration and increases with the increase of rainfall peak coefficient; the runoff coefficient under the condition of uniform rainfall pattern is slightly larger than that of Chicago rainfall pattern when rainfall return period and rainfall duration are kept in the same experimental condition. Rainfall return period has the most important influence on the runoff coefficient of semi-permeable roads, followed by rainfall peak coefficient and rainfall pattern.
    2022,38(3):102-108, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.014
    Abstract:
    In order to study the hydrological regulation efficiency of bioretention facilities, a bioretention model was established based on HYDRUS-1D, and the model parameters were calibrated through experimental data to verify the reliability of the model. The verified model was used to carry out simulation experiments, and the influence of hydraulic load parameters, aquifer height and initial water content on the hydrological regulation effect of bioretention was quantitatively analyzed by using the total runoff and peak reduction rate, and the delay time of runoff and peak emergence. The results showed that the maximum root mean square error of the simulated and measured values was only 0.134, the relative error was-2.28% to 7.59%, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R2 were both above 0.8, and the simulation results were reliable. Comprehensively considering the hydraulic load parameters, the bioretention with a confluence ratio of less than 10∶1 have a better control effect on the rainfall process with a return period of less than 1a and a rainfall duration of less than 120min. With the increase of the confluence ratio, return period and rainfall duration, the hydrological control effect of facilities continues to weaken. Increasing the height of the aquifer will improve the hydrological regulation effect of the bioretention. When the height of the aquifer increases from 0cm to 25cm, the total runoff and peak reduction rate increase by 86.16% and 96.74%, respectively, and the runoff generation and peak emergence delay time are extended by 57.8min and 36.0min, respectively. The increase of the initial water content will reduce the hydrological control effect of the bioretention, the total runoff and peak reduction rate ranged from 49.32% to 54.11% and 22.84% to 45.37%, respectively, and the range of runoff generation and peak-occurrence delay time ranged from 24.1min to 25.0min and 1.0min to 2.5min, respectively.
    2022,38(3):109-116, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.015
    Abstract:
    Using the center of gravity model and ArcGIS software, the spatio-temporal change trend of water transfer from agriculture to non-agriculture(WTAN) was discussed in Henan Province, and its driving factors were analyzed with the ridge regression model. The results show that the center of gravity of WTAN generally moves from southwest to northeast in Henan Province, presenting a phased change; the degree of WTAN shows an upward trend, with the values being higher in central and western Henan Province, and relatively lower in eastern, southern, and northern Henan Province; the degree of WTAN has increasing trends in Jiyuan and other seven cities, has stably trends in Sanmenxia and other six cities, and has decreasing trends in Nanyang and other two cities. There are significant differences in temporal effects of different driving factors, and the factors can be classified into four types that have driving effect, constraining effect, regulating effect, and insignificant effect, respectively, on WTAN in Henan Province. There are also significant differences in spatial effects of different driving factors, and the driving factors have different kinds of effects in different regions.
    2022,38(3):117-124, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.016
    Abstract:
    Progress in research on water quality monitoring using remote sensing were reviewed from the aspects of remote sensing data, retrieval methods, and water quality parameters. Remote sensing data commonly used at home and abroad were introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of five retrieval methods(the analytic method, empirical method, semi-empirical method, machine learning, and comprehensive method) were compared. The research on optically active parameters(chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, and colored dissolved organic matter) and non-optically active parameters(chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) was summarized. At present, there are still some problems in inland water quality monitoring using remote sensing, regarding the pertinence of satellite sensors, the spatiotemporal limitation of retrieval methods, the complexity of spectral characteristics of water quality parameters, the accuracy of atmospheric correction, and the water quality monitoring of special types of water. It is pointed out that the remote sensing monitoring of water quality in the future should focus on new remote sensing data, general retrieval models, different spectral characteristics, accurate atmospheric correction, and classification of special water types.
    2022,38(3):125-130, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.017
    Abstract:
    A mathematical model of Luoyuan Bay was established based on Mike21 for analysis of the hydrodynamic characteristics and flow field in Luoyuan Bay, and the model parameters were calibrated, with the Smagorinsky coefficient in the bay determined as 0.28, the roughness ranged from 0.024 to 0.035, and the wind drag coefficient ranged from 0.001 0 to 0.001 5. Then, the model was used to calculate the water body exchange period and tidal prism in Luoyuan Bay, and the results showed that the flow velocity in Luoyuan Bay varied from 0.20 to 1.56 m/s for rising and falling tides, the hydrodynamic conditions were strong at the bay mouth and Kemen Channel, and poor at the north bank and northwest corner of Luoyuan Bay, and the influence of tides outside the bay on the north bank was lower than that on the south bank. The half-exchange period of water body in Luoyuan Bay was about 15 d, and the average exchange rates of water body in Luoyuan Bay were 48.5%, 69.3%, 78.8% and 85.5% after 15 d, 30 d, 45 d , and 60 d, respectively. In autumn, the average tidal prism in Luoyuan Bay was 5.73 × 10^8m3, and those of spring tide and neap tide were 7.07 × 10^8m3 and 4.40 × 10^8 m3, respectively. It is suggested that in the process of controlling the flux of pollution sources into the sea, the discharge of pollutants into the sea from the northwest corner of Luoyuan Bay should be reasonably controlled with consideration of the hydrodynamic conditions of the sea area.
    2022,38(3):131-139, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.018
    Abstract:
    By constructing the decision tree model, the main wetland types such as swamp meadow wetland, swamp wetland and lake in Heihe River and Baihe River basins was divided. Three landscape pattern indices were selected to analyze the change characteristics of wetland types, and the driving factors of wetland change were analyzed by principal component analysis. The results show that the total area of wetlands in Heihe River and Baihe River basins has increased since 2000, and the change trend of swamp wetlands is opposite to that of meadow wetlands. The regional differences of wetland changes in the two river basins are significant. In the Heihe River Basin, the area of meadow wetland increases with the reduction of the fragmentation degree. And the area of swamp wetland decreases with the patch density reducing, and there is local contiguity. In Baihe River Basin, the area of swamp wetland increases. Under suitable topographic and hydrological conditions, meadow wetland and surrounding meadow can be transformed into swamp wetland. The wetland change in the two river basins has the interactive characteristics of “socio-economic+agricultural and animal husbandry factors+climate change”, and socio-economic factors play a leading role in the interdecadal scale wetland change.
    2022,38(3):140-146, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.019
    Abstract:
    A new type of dual rotation subsurface flow wetland was designed in order to solve the easy clogging problem of the vertical subsurface flow wetland. This new type of wetland realizes dual rotation of the pretreatment pool and the upper layer of the main pool and periodical change of the water flow direction through controlling the switch of the inlet and outlet valves, in order to improve the anti-clogging effect. A test on the pollutant removal effect of the new type of wetland was conducted under conditions of four different rotation periods, and the optimal rotation period was determined as five days. The anti-clogging ability and decontamination effect of the new type of wetland operated under the 5-day rotation period and the traditional subsurface flow wetland were compared. After 40, 140, and 160 days of operation, the porosities of the new type of wetland were 48.43%, 46.36%, and 46.21%, respectively, and the values of the traditional wetland were 46.89%, 38.72%, and 44.37%, respectively. The substrate porosity of the new type of wetland decreased less than that of the traditional wetland. Moreover, the removal rates of NH3-N, NO-3-N, TN, COD, and TP of the new type of wetland after 160 days were 60.40%, 70.80%, 56.53%, 53.12%, and 48.30%, respectively, and the values of the traditional wetland were 34.99%, 51.70%, 41.43%, 29.84%, and 47.06%, respectively. The removal rates of pollutants of the new type of wetland were higher than those of the traditional wetland, and the values of the new type of wetland decreased less than those of the traditional wetland. The new type of wetland has a relatively stable pollutant removal effect throughout the operation process, providing a new method to effectively alleviate the clogging problem.
    2022,38(3):147-153, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.020
    Abstract:
    In order to effectively extract nutrients from sludge and obtain a higher oil yield of Scenedesmus obliquus, the hydrothermal oxidation method was adopted to treat sludge, and the culture medium made from the sludge oxidation solution was diluted. The results showed that more than 90% of nitrogen and phosphorus in sludge could be transferred into the liquid phase by adding 0.2 mol/L oxidant (potassium persulfate) at 126℃; the algae and oil yields of oil producing Scenedesmus obliquus directly cultured in original liquid products of hydrothermal oxidation were very low, while, the oil yield of Scenedesmus obliquus cultured in liquid products diluted 10 times was 63% higher than that in conventional BG11 medium.
    2022,38(3):154-160, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.021
    Abstract:
    Given the low reaeration efficiency of fine pore aeration system in rivers, the oxygen mass transfer coefficient was used as the evaluation index to study effects of five factors, including the pore diameter of a fine pore aerator, aeration depth, salinity, and the mass concentrations of BOD5 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), on the oxygenation performance based on single factor test and response surface optimization test. Also, a multiple quadratic regression model was established to optimize aeration parameters. The results show that all of the five factors can affect the oxygen mass transfer coefficient, and the order of factor significance is as follows: aeration depth, the mass concentration of SDBS, salinity, pore diameter, and the mass concentration of BOD5. In addition, there is a remarkable interaction between the mass concentration of SDBS and pore diameter or salinity. With reasonable error between model prediction and experimental results, the regression model is accurate and reliable.
    2022,38(3):161-167, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.022
    Abstract:
    In order to improve the flux stability of membrane distillation in the treatment of landfill leachate membrane concentrate, a new ultrasound-assisted direct contact membrane distillation (US-DCMD) device was designed. Experiment was carried out to study the effect of ultrasound on membrane flux and analyze the effect of ultrasound on the membrane fouling layer by means of electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that under the condition of 60W ultrasonic irradiation, the permeation flux increased by 19.4%, and when the concentration coefficient of membrane solution reached 4, the relative permeation flux was maintained at 77.1%, while the relative permeation flux without ultrasonic irradiation decreased to 20.7% when the concentration coefficient of membrane solution was 2. The main pollutants on the membrane surface were CaCO3 and humic acid, and CaCO3 was the main factor limiting the membrane flux. Ultrasound reduced the calcium mass fraction of the contaminated layer from 25.6% to 15.0% and did not cause degradation or modification of organic matter. Ultrasonic irradiation made the fouling layer on the membrane surface uneven and fissured, which reduced the thickness of the fouling layer and maintained the flux stability.
    2022,38(3):168-173, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.023
    Abstract:
    To investigate the effect of low impact development (LID) facilities on alleviating urban flood disaster and reducing pollutant load, taking an old district of Huainan City as the research object, this paper constructed the rainstorm runoff management model based on SWMM model, analyzed the cost-effectiveness of different area proportions of individual LID facility, and then simulated the surface runoff, discharge and pollution load of the four LID facility combination plans at different design rainfall return periods. The results show that green roof accounting for 45% of the total roof area, permeable pavement accounting for 60% of the total impervious road area and biological retention facility accounting for 10% of the total green area are the most cost-effective for individual LID facility. Different LID facility combinations have good effects on storm flood control and pollutant reduction, while the effects decrease with rainfall increasing.
    2022,38(3):174-180, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.024
    Abstract:
    The spatio-temporal variation of the water quality in Hongze Lake were studied with the least favorable value method and the anomaly coefficient method based on the monthly monitoring data from 2010 to 2020. The results show that TN, CODMn, and TP are the most important factors that affect the water environment of Hongze Lake. With regard to the temporal distribution, the monthly TN concentration in Hongze Lake decreased continuously, the monthly CODMn concentration gradually stabilized, and the monthly TP concentration increased first and then decreased. The annual TN concentration decreased significantly, while the annual TP concentration decreased slightly from 2010 to 2020. The least favorable value of TN showed a downward trend, with the dry season having a significantly greater effect on the increase of TN than the flood season. The least favorable value of TP showed a slight upward trend, which mainly occurred in August, September, and October, with a probability up to 81.8%. With regard to the spatial distribution, the TN and CODMn anomaly coefficients in the lake area in Huai’an were mostly positive, while the coefficients in the lake area in Suqian were mostly negative. The TP anomaly coefficient was mostly negative in the lake area in Huai'an, while mostly positive in the lake area in Suqian. Currently, control of TN and reduction of the total emissions of CODMn are the two prominent issues needed to be addressed in the Huai'an area, and TP control is an urgent issue to be strengthened in the Suqian area.
    2022,38(3):181-188, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.025
    Abstract:
    In order to understand the chemical characteristics of shallow groundwater, using the coastal areas in Qidong City, Jiangsu Province on the north of the Yangtze River Estuary, the Pudong New Area, Shanghai on the south of the Yangtze River Estuary, and the eastern Chongming Island as the study areas, the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and formation mechanisms of chemical composition of shallow groundwater were investigated with mathematical and statistical methods and hydrogeochemical analysis methods. The results show that the shallow groundwater in the coastal area of the Yangtze River Estuary was hard water-hardest water and hard water during the wet and dry seasons, respectively, and was mainly fresh water. The main cations were Na+ and Ca2+, and HCO-3 was the anion with the highest content. The contents of main chemical components in the wet season were higher than those in the dry season, and the coefficient of spatial variation of each component in the wet season was larger than that in the dry season. Compared with Pudong, the chemical types of shallow groundwater in Qidong and the eastern Chongming Island showed a more significant seasonal change. The recharge of shallow groundwater mainly originated from atmospheric precipitation. The shallow groundwater in the coastal areas on the north of the Yangtze River Estuary and in the eastern Chongming Island were mainly affected by soil leaching, weathering and hydrolysis of rocks, cation exchange processes, and human activities, as well as evaporation and concentration to a certain extent, with only a few sites affected by seawater mixing. The coastal area on the south of the Yangtze River Estuary was mainly affected by weathering and hydrolysis of rocks and cation exchange processes and not affected by seawater mixing, and the agricultural activities had little influence on the area.
    2022,38(3):189-197, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.026
    Abstract:
    To explore the effect of gravel group arrangement on the reconstruction of biological habitats and estimate the ecological flow in the reconstructed reaches, selecting Jinshaxi River in Jiangxi Province as the study area, silver carp as the study object, the optimal gravel group arrangement pattern was examined based on methods of orthogonal test design and numerical simulation, and the river ecological flow is estimated based on biological habitat method. The results indicated that flow has the most influences on the weighted usable area (WAU) of the habitat, followed by side length of the gravel accumulation body, while distance between the accumulation bodies has the least influences. The optimal gravel group arrangement type should have 20.m side length of single gravel and 9.m spacing between adjacent gravels. The WAU in the curving cut-off river channel is decreased by approximately 30% compared to that in the original river channel under bank-full discharge condition. The arrangement of optimal gravel group improves WAU by 20% compared to that in the original channel, and significantly improve the biological habitat in the curving cut-off river, with little influence on the flood discharge capacity. The basic ecological flow and the target ecological flow of the original river were 50m3/s and 718m3/s, respectively. After the reconstruction in curving cut-off river channel, the basic ecological flow and optimal ecological flow are 218m3/s and 618m3/s, respectively.
    2022,38(3):198-204, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2022.03.027
    Abstract:
    The effects of different densities of Bellamya aeruginosa on the growth of Vallisneria natans and Ceratophyllum demersum and water quality were studied through the experiment. The results showed that the presence of Bellamya aeruginosa significantly promoted the growth of submerged plants. The relative growth rates of Vallisneria natans and Ceratophyllum demersum in the high-density groups were 2.16 and 1.66 times of those in the control groups, respectively, and the relative elongation rates in the high-density groups were 1.18 and 1.25 times of those in the control groups, respectively. The existence of Bellamya aeruginosa had a certain negative impact on water quality. The water conductivity increased with the increase of snail density, and the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased with the increase of snail density. There was no consistent trend of pH value, redox potential and chlorophyll concentration with the increase of snail density. The removal rate of nitrogen in water showed a downward trend with the increase of snail density. The removal rates of nitrogen in the high-density group of Vallisneria natans and Ceratophyllum demersum decreased by 70.0% and 64.5% respectively compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in the removal rate of phosphorus between the groups. The density of Bellamya aeruginosa had the main effect on the variation of nitrogen concentration in water, with the proportion of variance of 64%, while the different submerged macrophytes played a major role in the change of phosphorus concentrations in water, with the variance proportion of 72.54%.
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      Abstract:
      Based on the analysis of the development process of comprehensive watershed management the basic concept of comprehensive watershed management is put forward, and a multi-dimensional nested theoretical framework of comprehensive watershed management system is constructed, including five dimensions of time, space, factor, process and regulation. Three key technical systems of comprehensive watershed management such as mechanism identification technology system, quantitative simulation technology system and optimization decision-making technology system are proposed, providing scientific support for the practices of comprehensive watershed management in China.
      Abstract:
      The biorentention facility for sponge city construction is a typical ecological technology suitable for decentralized rainwater treatment and utilization. However, at present, there are still some problems restricting its operational efficiency and service life. The key technologies and research progresses of bioretention facilities in sponge city construction are reviewed. It is pointed out that the development of high efficiency purifying filler, the establishment of pollutant migration and transformation model, the optimization of design parameters, the risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants accumulation and the construction of remediation technology will become the hot spot in the future research of bioretention facilities for sponge city construction.
      Abstract:
      Based on the analysis of the existing methods of on-line discharge monitoring of hydrometry stations, this paper summarizes the latest research progress of velocity-area method and hydraulic method in on-line discharge monitoring. Cross section discharge was calculated based on local flow velocity, and the on-line discharge monitoring method based on velocity-area method is divided into three categories: index-velocity method, velocity distribution model method and surface velocity method. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of H-ADCP method, V-ADCP method, two-line energy slope method, radar method, particle image method, water measuring building method and hydraulic building method, and points out that further research will be carried out in improving online discharge monitoring accuracy, improving stability and promoting application.
      Abstract:
      In the past century, great achievements have been made in global water management, which has provided key supports for sustainable development. However, the global water problems keep increasing, it is urgent to further improve water management modes. Based on the development history of water problems, this paper explored the causes of water problems, and analyzed the shortcomings of global water management modes from the aspects of objectives, overall framework, and technical approaches: in the current global water management modes, the natural properties of water cycle and its multi-processes have not been fully integrated, and there exists serious problems such as end-disposal and process-dissociation. The development suggestions for the future water control mode are put forward: from the perspective of coupling multi process mutual feed mechanism of basin water cycle, we should enhance the role of natural attributes and natural forces, and coordinate the function of multi-elements and multi-processes, building a Nature Enriched and Attributes Coordinated Watershed to manage the complex water problems systematically.
      Abstract:
      In view of the nine provinces in the Yellow River Basin, an evaluation index system covering three criteria layers such as water resources, ecological environment and economic and society is constructed. The water resources carrying capacity of nine provinces in 2002, 2007, 2012 and 2017 was evaluated by the TOPSIS model combined with analytic hierarchy process(AHP)and entropy weight, and the evaluation results of the year of 2017 were diagnosed with obstacle factors. The results show that in the time dimension, the water resources carrying capacity of nine provinces shows an increasing trend, especially in Henan, Shandong and Inner Mongolia, and the improvement of water resources carrying capacity is closely related to the improvement of two criteria level related indicators such as eco-environment, economic society. In the spatial dimension, the water resources carrying capacity of the nine provinces does not reach the level of grade I(carriable level), and the spatial difference is obvious. Water production module, water resources per capita, water supply modulus, ecological water use rate, vegetation coverage rate, water consumption per 10 000 RMB of industrial added value and water consumption per 10 000 RMB of GDP are seven major obstacles, and there are significant differences of some obstacle factors in different provinces.
      Abstract:
      In order to quantitatively analyze and evaluate the spatial balance and spatial difference of water resources, the combined method of connection number and coupling coordination degree was used to evaluate the spatial balance of regional water resources. Considering the composite relationship of water resources, economic society and ecological environment, an evaluation index system for spatial balance of water resources composed of two systems of water resources carrying capcity and bearing pressure and 15 evaluation indexes was established. The weight of evaluation index was calculated by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process based on accelerating genetic algorithm, and a spatial balance evaluation method of water resources based on connection number and coupling coordination degree was proposed. Taking Anhui Province as an example, the results show that the evaluation method is reasonable when applied to the evaluation of water resources spatial balance, which can make up for the defect that the traditional coupling coordination degree can not reflect the uncertainty problem, and accurately reflect the coordination between systems and the overall development level.
      2015,31(6):76-80, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2015.06.012
      Abstract:
      The pollution capacity of 4 493 national key water function zones has been checked. Taking water quality status, pollution capacity and present pollution loads entering water body into consideration, the principles for the limitation of discharged pollution are put forward. The aimed results of the pollution control during 2020 and 2030 are as follow: COD will be 5. 852 million t/a and NH3-N will be 0. 526 million t/a in 2020 level year, COD will be 5. 430 million t /a and NH3-N will be 0. 465 million t /a in 2030 level year. The results of the pollution control in each province are analyzed, which show that the annual limitation of total amount of pollution discharged in most provinces is gradually decreasing, which is consistent with the increasing of water quality compliance rate. According to the pollution control scheme, the measures for enhancing management of the limitation of discharged pollution are proposed, including accelerate the construction of monitoring water resources, strengthen the supervision and administration of water function zones, strictly control the pollution loads entering water body, increase investment in water conservation, improve the system of policies and regulations, strengthen the propaganda and education and improve the mechanism of public participation.
      2019,35(2):1-12, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2019.02.001
      Abstract:
      According to in-situ data analysis, the causes of eco-problem in hydro-environmental variation in recent year in Poyang Lake in the lower Yangtze River, and the effect of awidely concerned sluice gate at its outlet are discussed. It is revealed that 1)the ahead of time dry-up after flood seasons is mainly due to the reservoirs impoundment in the upper reach of the Yangtze River, that changed the runoff regime and caused an ahead-seasonal drying in water level for 2-4 m all the way along the Yangtze; 2)massive sand-mining in the outlet channel of Poyang Lake has destructed the natural hydraulic mechanism that elevated the pool in dry seasons, causing a 2 m lowering from February to march at Duchang; 3)retention of reservoirs in the Poyang basin and the general loweredsummer pool in Poyang lake also diminish the after-flood discharge of the lake(August to October), exacerbating the extreme drying especially for the lakes delta regions after season. A sluice gate at the lakes outlet can hold-up and even elevate the lakes pool, but it can also obstruct the migration of fishes for about half-year and impact the habitat and food sources for migratory birds and the water quality of the lake as it becomes an artificial impoundment from riverine regime by the gate in dry seasons. It is also worth worrying about more possible problems for the Yangtze ecosystem as a whole in habitat diversity from the gates, as dams will be thoroughly partitioned in addition to the Three Gorges dam, with more negative effect on fluvial morphology, water level in dry seasons, tidal limits and salt water intrusion. Finally, five countermeasures for comprehensive restoration of both the Yangtze and the Poyang Lake were proposed.
      2020,36(4):40-46, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2020.04.007
      Abstract:
      Water samples were collected and analyzed respectively at nine sampling sites along Zhengzhou section of Jialu River in July(water diversion time)and in September(no water diversion time), and then comprehensive water quality identification index method and factor analysis were applied for the evaluation of water quality and apportionment of pollution sources respectively. The results showed that the comprehensive water quality of the upper reaches of the Zhengzhou section of the Jialu River was of level II or III, the water quality of the mid-stream Lakes was classified as IV level, and the downstream water quality was classified as IV to worse than V level; the water quality of Suoxu River and Qili River were worse than V level, worse than V level and black smelly water, respectively. Water diversion from Yellow River to the Jialu river through Yangqiao main canal can only change the water quality of the nearest receiving area temporarily, with no obvious impact on the water quality of Zhengzhou section. Two factors can explain the information of 5 water quality indicators. In the lower reaches of the main stream and the tributaries, the representative indices TN, TP, NH+4-N of the first pollution factor are mainly related to the drainage of the municipal sewage treatment, while the representative indexes of the second pollution factor, CODCr and CODMn, are mainly related to the untreated sewage. The pollution of upper and middle reaches of the Jialu River are mainly non-point source pollution and endogenous pollution.
      Abstract:
      Based on a review of the problems and challenges of sponge city construction in China, the concept and methodology of an urban water system integrating urban rainstorm-runoff, water pollution control, and an urban ecological greenbelt with wetland and municipal construction(drainage and sewage)are proposed. Based on hydrological theories, the concept of the control rate of total annual runoff, which is the most critical and difficult-to-quantify factor in the construction of a sponge city, is analyzed. It is pointed out that the currently calculated control rate of total annual runoff is actually the control rate of total annual precipitation. Hence, it is necessary to establish an internal relation with the gain factor of the response of the hydrological system, i. e. , the runoff coefficient. It also needs to be noted that the runoff coefficient is not a constant, but the time-varying nonlinearity of the combination of soil moisture, precipitation intensity, and the underlying surface. Additionally, the relationship between low impact development(LID)during sponge city construction and the improved control rate of total annual runoff are analyzed, in order to examine the conditions and risks of sea views in cities. Finally, it is suggested that the runoff coefficient nonlinearity, the differences in storage capacity between natural conditions and the conditions after urbanization, river and lake water system storage and land evapotranspiration, basin sponge regulation and control, and risk management should be strengthened on the hydrological basis of sponge city construction and planning. Some suggestions for future sponge city construction in China are put forward.
      2019,35(1):6-13, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2019.01.002
      Abstract:
      In order to quantify the water consumption of winter wheat, and make use of the regional water resources rationally, water footprint of winter wheat in Haihe River Basin from 1958 to 2016 was accounted, and direct and indirect effects of meteorological and agricultural input on water footprint of winter wheat was analyzed based on Penman formula, daily scale soil water balance and path analysis. The results show that the years average total water footprint of winter wheat in the basin was 239. 6 billion m3 and the average unit water footprint was 1 840 m3/t. The water footprint shows a significantly decreasing trend. The water footprint was heterogeneous in space with the largest water footprint in Beijing and Tianjin, followed by Shanxi, Shandong and Henan. The total power of agricultural machinery and the amount of converted fertilizer application have the biggest direct effect on the water footprint of winter wheat. Meteorological factors influence water footprint of winter wheat mainly by input factors of agricultural production. Water footprint of winter wheat can be reduced by increasing agricultural productivity. Fertilization should be reduced in areas with high grey water footprint, such as Beijing and Tianjin.
      2020,36(3):46-51, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2020.03.009
      Abstract:
      In order to acquaint with the current status of surface water environment in Central European countries along the “Belt and Road”, the data of surface water pollutants in Central European countries in recent years were summarized, and the pollution status of surface water environment was analyzed. The results show that the levels of conventional pollutants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals in four river basins such as Vistula River basin show a downward trend since the 1970s. However, further treatment route was still needed to remove the pollutants. At present, the levels of emerging pollutants such as antibiotics in each river basin were increasing, which was mainly resulted from the urban sewage discharge. In the future, different types of pollutants should be treated according to their specific sources, while the cooperation between nations on water pollutants treatment should be strengthened to promote the quality of water environment in Central European countries, promoting the economic and social development of countries along the “Belt and Road”.
      2015,31(2):7-14, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2015.02.002
      Abstract:
      Based on the drought monitoring theory and daily precipitation data covering the period of 1961 2010 in Xinjiang, we compared and analyzed the effectiveness and practicability of the effective drought index (EDI) and standardized precipitation indexes (SPI) based on different time scale (1 , 3 , 6 , 9 , 12 , 24 month). The result shows that EDI is more superior to SPI no matter for short term drought or long term drought. SPI of short term scale is greatly influenced by short duration precipitation, which obviously reflects the variation of drought and flood in short period in Xinjiang. With the expanding of time scale, SPI gradually loses its feedback from short duration precipitation. However, it can still reflect the obvious trend of drought and flood over the long term scale. Like SPI, EDI can also reflect the influence caused by short term drought and recent precipitation. Moreover, with the time passing by, EDI is able to give different weight to everyday precipitation considering the influence to the current drought statues caused by former precipitation. Relevant researches can provide significant theoretical basis to the drought monitoring in humid and some other climatic zones.
      Abstract:
      This paper briefly described the surface water environment numerical models, including the development history, the application status, and the latest research results at home and abroad of hydrodynamic models, water quality models and water ecological models. Both methods of analyzing model sensitivity and uncertainty and problems of model precision were emphatically expounded. It is pointed out that the systematization, integration and platform construction of the model, the combination of innovation with emerging technologies supported by large data, and the related management issues such as model synthesis and regulation will become the future research hotspots in the field of water environment simulation and prediction.
      2020,36(1):31-37, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2020.01.005
      Abstract:
      Based on the 30 m×30 m resolution Landsat remote sensing data, the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of vegetation coverage in Chabagou Watershed from 1987 to 2018 were analyzed, and the soil surface erosion level map of the watershed was generated to analyze its impact on runoff generation and sediment yield in the watershed. The results show that the vegetation coverage of Chabagou Watershed was increasing rapidly, from 24. 7% in 1987 to 53. 1% in 2018. The composition of vegetation coverage in the watershed had changed a lot. Since 2002, the proportion of medium and high coverage areas increased significantly, and the growth was mainly concentrated in hilly and gully areas. With the increase of vegetation coverage in the watershed, the runoff generation and sediment yield decreased, and the surface erosion decreased. The impact of vegetation on sediment yield was greater than that on runoff generation.
      Abstract:
      In view of the problems of in-situ or ectopic remediation technology of contaminated sediment, such as the need to introduce foreign materials, or the long-term occupation of land and the prone to secondary pollution, etc. , a contaminated sediment backfill technology(CSBT)was put forward, in which the dredged sediment is sintered into ceramists and backfilled into the original dredged area after dewatering, drying and harmless treatment. The potential of CSBT for remediation of sediment was discussed in terms of enhancing bed stability, clarifying mud-water interface, changing vertical distribution of dissolved oxygen in sediment and reducing pollutant release flux from sediment. Sediment dredging can directly remove most of the surface pollutants, while sintering at high temperature during the preparation of ceramsite can reduce the pollution of dredged sediment. The stability of the bed surface increases, the particles are not easy to suspend again under the same hydrodynamic conditions, the release flux of sediment decreases significantly, and the permeation depth of dissolved oxygen on the bed surface increases after ceramsite backfilling.
      2015,31(1):22-29, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2015.01.004
      Abstract:
      Measures taken in various stages of river regulation in Japan were thoroughly reviewed and interpreted. The “multi natural river” regulation project in Japan was especially summarized and analyzed, making the river regulation ideas and technical measures of different stages clear. The purpose of this paper is to provide references of ideas and technical method about how to combine water conservancy project construction with ecological restoration and water quality improvement for Chinese river regulation.
      2015,31(1):41-47, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2015.01.007
      Abstract:
      In order to improve the flood control capacity, the water supply security for irrigation and the living environment in rural area, beginning with the present status and problems of rural river regulation in China, the policy measures and the project investment for rural river regulation in China were analyzed, and the present status and development trends of related technology of rural river regulation in China were discussed. The countermeasures and project measures, the ideas and development direction of rural river regulation were put forward. The purpose of this paper is to provide certain reference for the future rural river regulation.
      2016,32(6):156-162, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2016.06.025
      Abstract:
      This paper summarizes the status of fishway planning and construction in recent years in China. Two typical cases(the Changzhou Water Control Project and the Cuijiaying Navigation-Hydropower Junction)are presented to illustrate the current status of fishways in China. The restrictive factors in the construction and operation of China’s fishways are analyzed with regard to technologies, supervision and management, operational maintenance, and policy systems. Some suggestions, including strengthening research on key technologies, formulating and implementing basins’ environmental protection plans, and implementing adaptive management and accelerating the improvement of relevant policies and regulations, are provided, in order to promote the rapid and healthy development of fishways in China.
      2015,31(2):40-44, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1004-6933.2015.02.008
      Abstract:
      The author of this paper researched the source, species and distribution of the bacteria attached to the surface of Cyclops. The results indicate that the bacteria attached to the surface of Cyclops are from natural water body, and the similarity of the species between the bacteria attached to the surface of Cyclops and those in natural water body is as high as 748 %. There is a little difference between the dominant bacteria species on the surface of Cyclops and those in natural water body. The dominant bacteria species in nature water body is not the dominant one on the surface of Cyclops. The number of free-living bacteria in natural water body is more than those attached to the surface of Cyclops. A phenomenon is found that bacteria are distributed unevenly on the surface of Cyclops by using the technology of green fluorescent protein. The bacteria mainly focus on the foot and tail of Cyclops, which are covered with specialized setae. There are also many bacteria attached to the joint of the back and abdomen of Cyclops. The oocyst of female Cyclops is another important carrier of bacteria.

    Journal information


    • Competent unit:

      水利部

    • Organizers:

      河海大学 中国水利学会环境水利专业委员会

    • Editor-in-chief:

      王沛芳

    • Address:

      1 Xikang Road ,Nanjing 210098, P. R. China

    • Postcode:

      210098

    • Phone:

      025-83786642

    • Email:

      bh1985@vip.163.com,bh@hhu.edu.cn

    • CN:

      32-1356/TV

    • ISSN:

      1004-6933

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