跨省横向府际应急协同机制的实践样态及制度保障
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(南开大学法学院,天津300350 )

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D912.1

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国家社会科学基金一般项目(18BFX049)


Practice and Optimization of Intergovernmental Emergency Cooperation Mechanisms among Provinces
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(School of Law, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China)

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    摘要:

    突破省域边界的突发事件具有复杂性、不确定性与突发性,灾害后果严重。实践中,各省级政府通过签订应急协同协议、新设应急协同组织、开展联席会议与会商应对跨省突发事件,形成了多元化的应急协同机制,契合中国特色应急管理制度的改革方向。但是,相关机制不仅面临合法性质疑,还存在效力薄弱、协同动力不足和未突破区域壁垒的弊病,需要完善相关合法性保障与实效保障。协同机制具备实质合宪性,《中华人民共和国地方各级人民代表大会和地方各级人民政府组织法》赋予其组织法依据,一些仅供协调而未涉及职权调整的协同机制不违反职权法定原则与组织法定原则,具备合法性。然而,应对跨省突发事件需要整合各省政府部门职权以形成区域性应急行政权,该权力源自政府的行政授权,可由《中华人民共和国突发事件应对法》完善相关法律依据。协同机制的实效保障需要多路并进:在协同协议层面,应当进一步提升协议的法律效力与可操作性;在协同组织层面,需要健全应急协同组织及其内部结构;在协同信息层面,完善应急协同信息平台建设有助于收集、共享常态化信息与突发事件预警和处置信息;在协同动力层面,可以通过夯实协同观念基础与信任基础、增加协同净收益和加强中央政府的高位推动增强协同动力。

    Abstract:

    Cross-provincial emergencies are characterized by complexity, uncertainty and suddenness, with serious consequences. In practice, signing interlocal agreements, reforming organizations, conducting joint administrative conference or negotiations are the emergency coordination mechanisms among provinces to deal with it. However, the mechanisms are criticized for being illegitimate, insufficiently motivated, ineffective and limited to the provinces. Therefore, enhancing the legitimacy and effectiveness holds significant importance. In fact, the Constitution and laws provide part of the legal basis. Some mechanisms that are only for coordination are legitimate. But in order to handle emergencies better, the governments should be authorized to recalibrate the original powers according to the Emergency Response Law. The effectiveness of the mechanisms can be improved through four ways. As for interlocal agreements, the legitimacy and operability should be further improved. In addition, it is necessary to reform the emergency cooperative organization and its internal structures. Equally important is to improve the construction of information platform for accessing normalized, warning and disposal information. Finally, in order to stimulate coordination dynamics, it is necessary to increase the benefits of emergency coordination, strengthen the central government’s pressure conduction and consolidate the basis of coordination among provinces.

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付士成,谷静萱.跨省横向府际应急协同机制的实践样态及制度保障[J].河海大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2024,26(1):60-71.(FU Shicheng, GU Jingxuan. Practice and Optimization of Intergovernmental Emergency Cooperation Mechanisms among Provinces[J]. Journal of Hohai University (Philosophy and Socail Sciences),2024,26(1):60-71.(in Chinese))

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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-03-01
  • 出版日期: 2024-02-25